Fertility problems in Women

Most cases of female infertility are caused by problems with ovulation. Without ovulation, there are no eggs to be fertilized. Some signs that a woman is not ovulating normally include irregular or absent menstrual periods. Ovulation problems are often caused by polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is a hormone imbalance problem which can interfere with normal ovulation and is the most common cause of female infertility. Also, cohort studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in HIV-1-infected women. These women may therefore also be at risk for tubal infertility. Behavioural influences may also lead to higher fertility rates. Biological mechanisms also influence fertility rates in HIV-positive women and men. Research has shown that women with HIV may find it more difficult to conceive than their HIV-negative counterparts. HIV infected women experience reduced pregnancy rates and higher rates of both planned abortion and miscarriage.



  • Track 1-1 Biological and Socio-behavioural Factors
  • Track 2-2 Biological mechanisms in Men & Women
  • Track 3-3 Asymptomatic stage of HIV infection
  • Track 4-4 Risk of cervical abnormalities

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