The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.
Sexually transmitted diseases are infections that are passed starting with one individual then onto the next amid vaginal, anal, and oral sex. They're normal, and many of individuals who have them don't have any indications. Some are transmitted by bites from insects or animals. And others are acquired by ingesting contaminated food or water/blood semen/fluids or drugs or being exposed to organisms in the environment. Signs and symptoms vary depending on the organism causing the infection, but often include fever and fatigue. Mild infections may respond to rest and home remedies, while some life-threatening infections may require hospitalization. Sexually transmitted diseases can be unsafe, yet fortunately getting tested is no major big deal, and most STDs are easy to treat.
- Track 1-1Venereal Diseases
- Track 1-2Mode of Transmission
- Track 1-3Inhabitancy of Micro Organisms
- Track 1-4Meningitis Infection
HIV can only be transmitted from an infected person to another through direct contact of bodily fluids such as:
- Blood (including menstrual blood)
- Semen / cum / precum / ejaculate
- Vaginal secretions
- Breast milk
Unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse are high-risk activities. In the penis, vagina and anus, HIV may enter through cuts and sores (many of which would be very small and hard to notice), or directly through the mucus membranes. Oral sex is considered a low risk practice, but it’s not completely risk-free. The virus can't survive well in the mouth (in semen, vaginal fluid or blood), so the risk of HIV transmission through the throat, gums, and oral membranes is lower than through vaginal or anal membranes. Mother to child transmission is now rare in the U.S. and other high-income countries because pregnant women who are HIV-positive are normally given medications to prevent the foetus from getting infected. However, it is possible for an HIV-infected mother to transmit HIV before or during birth or through breast milk.
- Track 2-1Sexual transmission
- Track 2-2Perinatal transmission
- Track 2-3Blood transmission
A common way for infectious diseases to spread is through the direct transfer of bacteria, viruses or other germs from one person to another. This can occur when an individual with the bacterium or virus touches, kisses, or coughs or sneezes on someone who isn't infected. These germs can also spread through the exchange of body fluids from sexual contact. The person who passes the germ may have no symptoms of the disease but may simply be a carrier. Even smaller than bacteria, viruses cause a multitude of diseases, ranging from the common cold to AIDS. These one-cell organisms are responsible for illnesses such as strep throat, urinary tract infections and tuberculosis. Many skin diseases, such as ringworm and athlete's foot, are caused by fungi. Other types of fungi can infect your lungs or nervous system. Malaria is caused by a tiny parasite that is transmitted by a mosquito bite. Other parasites may be transmitted to humans from animal feces.
- Track 3-1Viral Infections
- Track 3-2Bacterial Infections
- Track 3-3Vaginal, Semen and Blood Secretion- Intercourse Period
- Track 3-4Fungal Infections
- Track 3-5Protozoan Infections
Infection with one of the 30 human papillomavirus (HPV) types that infect the genital epithelium is very common, although most of these infections are asymptomatic. The most common virus type was HPV 16, followed by 6 and 11. The most usual manifestation of HPV infection, when one occurs, is genital warts. Indeed, genital warts are the most common symptomatic STI. They are usually caused by HPV types 6 and 11 and develop in about half the women infected with these types. There’s no cure for HPV. But there’s a lot you can do to keep HPV from having a negative impact on your health. There are vaccines that can help protect you from ever getting certain types of HPV. Genital warts can be removed by your nurse or doctor. High-risk HPV can usually be easily treated before it turns into cancer, which is why regular Pap/HPV tests are so important. While condoms and dental dams don’t offer perfect protection, they can help lower your chances of getting HPV.
- Track 4-1Genital Warts
- Track 4-2Opportunistic Cancer
- Track 4-3Genital HPV infection
- Track 4-4Low risk HPV (Type 6 and 11)
- Track 4-5High risk HPV (Type 16 and 18)
- Track 4-6Regular Pap/HPV tests
Bacterial Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is often asymptomatic and causes cervicitis, endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women, with the sequelae of tubal factor infertility and ectopic pregnancy. In men, it causes urethritis, epididymo-orchitis and prostatitis. It is spread through vaginal, anal, and oral sex. The infection is carried in semen and vaginal fluids. This can infect the penis, vagina, cervix, anus, urethra, eyes, and throat. Most people with chlamydia don’t have any symptoms and feel totally fine, so they might not even know they’re infected. This can be easily cleared up with antibiotics. You can prevent chlamydia by using condoms every time you have sex. Complicated chlamydial infections, such as epididymitis or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), require longer therapy, but treatment recommendations vary greatly.
- Track 5-1Chlamydia trachomatis- Bacterial Infection
- Track 5-2Genital and Eye diseases
- Track 5-3Bladder infection
- Track 5-4Lower abdominal pain
Gonorrhea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The gonorrhoea bacteria are most often passed from one person to another during sexual contact, including oral, anal or vaginal intercourse. It’s sexually transmitted, and most people with gonorrhoea don’t have symptoms. Gonorrhea is sometimes called “the clap” or “the drip.” You can also get gonorrhoea by touching your eye if you have infected fluids on your hand. Gonorrhea can also be spread to a baby during birth if the mother has it. Main groups who are primarily affected: men who have sex with men (the group with the greatest increase), People in remote settings, and people who have heterosexual contact overseas. Other heterosexual cases are uncommon. Gonorrhea is usually easily cured with antibiotics. But if you don’t treat gonorrhoea early enough, it can lead to more serious health problems in the future.
- Track 6-1Bacterial infection in Mucous Membrane
- Track 6-2Neisseria gonorrhoeae- Causative Agent
- Track 6-3Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), Conjunctivitis
- Track 6-4Inflammation of the prostate gland, urethra, or epididymis, testicular pain.
- Track 6-5Pregnant Women to Child Transmission
Syphilis is caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum. Syphilis is a common STD. Syphilis is spread through vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Syphilis causes sores on your genitals (called chancres). The sores are usually painless, but they can easily spread the infection to other people. You get syphilis from contact with the sores. A lot of people with syphilis don’t notice the sores and feel totally fine, so they might not know they have it. People with primary syphilis will develop one or more sores. The sores are usually small painless ulcers. They occur on the genitals or in or around the mouth somewhere between 10-90 days. The secondary stage may last one to three months and begins within six weeks to six months after exposure. Like primary syphilis, secondary syphilis will resolve without treatment. Tertiary syphilis occurs if the infection isn't treated, it may then progress to a stage characterized by severe problems with the heart, brain, and nerves that can result in paralysis, blindness, dementia, deafness, impotence, and even death if it's not treated.
- Track 7-1Primary Syphilis
- Track 7-2Secondary Syphilis
- Track 7-3Tertiary Stage
- Track 7-4Inflammation in lymph nodes
Herpes is caused by two different but similar viruses: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Both kinds can make sores pop up on and around your vulva, vagina, cervix, anus, penis, scrotum, butt, inner thighs, lips, mouth, throat, and rarely, your eyes. Many people with herpes don’t notice the sores or mistake them for something else, so they might not know they’re infected. You can spread herpes even when you don’t have any sores or symptoms. There’s no cure for herpes, but medication can ease your symptoms and lower your chances of giving the virus to other people. HSV transmission may uncommonly occur in the absence of genital lesions. The risk of acquiring genital HSV-2 from a regular partner is greater for women with no previous HSV-1 infection and least for men with previous HSV-1 exposure. Viral culture and direct immunofluorescence are the definitive tests for HSV diagnosis, but sensitivity depends on proper specimen collection.
- Track 8-1Herpes simplex virus HSV-1
- Track 8-2Herpes simplex virus HSV-2
- Track 8-3Direct Human contact Transmission
- Track 8-4Blisters and Ulceration on the Cervix
Infection with the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common treatable STI in the world. People get trich from having unprotected sexual contact with someone who has the infection. Trich is often passed during vaginal sex. It’s also spread by vulva-to-vulva contact, sharing sex toys, and touching your own or your partner’s genitals if you have infected fluids on your hand. T. vaginalis may be diagnosed by Pap smear, culture or microscopy of a wet preparation. Trichomonal infection is treated with a single dose of metronidazole or tinidazole. You can reduce your risk of infection by using condoms correctly every time you have sex. Most studies of treatment efficacy have been conducted in women, and there is a surprising lack of evidence regarding their efficacy in men.
- Track 9-1Protozoan Infection - Trichomonas vaginalis
- Track 9-2 Common site of infection- Urethra ,Vagina
- Track 9-3Higher rate of transmission-Women to Men
- Track 9-4 High exposure to AIDS
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It’s a virus that breaks down certain cells in your immune system. When HIV damages your immune system, it’s easier to get sick and even die from infections that your body could normally fight off. HIV kills CD4 cells. Healthy adults generally have a CD4 count of 500 to 1,500 per cubic millimetre. A person with HIV whose CD4 count falls below 200 per cubic millimetre will be diagnosed with AIDS. AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV, but just because a person has HIV doesn’t mean they’ll develop AIDS. This makes the person vulnerable to a wide range of illnesses and leads to raise of many opportunistic infections. The shortened life expectancy linked with untreated AIDS isn’t a direct result of the syndrome itself. Rather, it’s a result of the diseases and complications that arise from having an immune system weakened by AIDS.
- Track 10-1Weakens Immune system
- Track 10-2Viral infection
- Track 10-3Progression to Stage 3
- Track 10-4Development of AIDS
- Track 10-5Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
The symptoms of HIV at each stage can vary in type and severity from person-to-person and some people may not get any symptoms at all for many years. Without antiretroviral treatment, the virus replicates in the body and causes more and more damage to the immune system. Therefore, people need to start treatment as soon as possible after testing positive. Around one to four weeks after getting HIV, some people will experience symptoms that can feel like flu. These symptoms can happen because your body is reacting to the HIV virus. Cells that are infected with HIV are circulating throughout your blood system. Your immune system, in response, tries to attack the virus by producing HIV antibodies this process is called seroconversion. Once a person has been through the acute primary infection stage and seroconversion process, they can often start to feel better. In fact, HIV may not cause any other symptoms for up to 10 or even 15 years. However, the virus will still be active, infecting new cells and making copies of itself. By the third stage of HIV infection a person’s immune system is severely damaged rising to opportunistic infections.
- Track 11-1Acute HIV Infection
- Track 11-2Chronic HIV Infection
- Track 11-3 AIDS- Severe stage of infection
Opportunistic infections are infections that occur more frequently in people with advanced HIV disease, including tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, pneumonia and toxoplasmosis. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is virus most commonly thought of as causing serious eye disease in people with weakened immune systems. It can potentially lead to blindness. The damage from CMV infection may slow with the use of antiretroviral therapy. Cryptococcus may cause meningitis. This is an infection of the membranes around the brain and spinal cord. Long-term suppressive therapy is often used with somewhat fewer toxic medications for people with HIV. Cryptosporidiosis is an unpleasant diarrheal illness for healthy people. However, for those who are HIV-positive, it can last longer and cause more severe symptoms. A medication called nitazoxanide (Alinia) is normally prescribed to treat the disease. Mycobacterium avium complex MAC organisms can make their way into the body through the GI system and spread. It can be treated through antimycobacterial and antiretroviral therapy.
- Track 12-1Serious Infections- Advantage of weak of immune system
- Track 12-2Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)
- Track 12-3Cytomegalovirus
- Track 12-4Cryptococcal meningitis
- Track 12-5Cryptosporidiosis & Toxoplasmosis
Cervical cancer is known to be caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Transmission of this virus is extremely common among all sexually active women. But studies have clearly demonstrated that the risk of contracting HPV rises substantially as HIV progresses. For this reason, HIV-positive women should undergo regular pelvic exams with Pap tests. Pap tests can detect early cervical cancer. Most cervical cancers (80 to 90 percent) are squamous cell cancers. Adenocarcinoma is the second most common type of cervical cancer, accounting for the remaining 10 to 20 percent of cases. Adenocarcinoma develops from the glands that produce mucus in the endocervix. While less common than squamous cell carcinoma, the incidence of adenocarcinoma is on the rise, particularly in younger women. Cervical cancer is considered invasive when it spreads outside the cervix. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.
- Track 13-1Uterine Cervix
- Track 13-2Abnormality and Invasion of cells
- Track 13-3Squamous cell carcinoma
- Track 13-4Adenocarcinoma
- Track 13-5Greater exposure to HPV
- Track 13-6Genetic Mutation
Tuberculosis or TB, as it’s commonly called - is a contagious infection that usually attacks the lungs. It can also spread to other parts of the body, like the brain and spine. A type of bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes it. Latent TB is when you have the germs in your body, but your immune system stops them from spreading. That means you don’t have any symptoms and you’re not contagious. But the infection is still alive in your body and can one day become active. Active TB means the germs multiply and can make you sick. You can spread the disease to others. Ninety percent of adult cases of active TB are from the reactivation of a latent TB infection. TB is actually the leading cause of death for individuals who have HIV.
- Track 14-1Mycobacterium tuberculosis Bacterium
- Track 14-2Latent TB
- Track 14-3 Active TB
- Track 14-4PPD tuberculin
- Track 14-5 Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis
- Track 14-6Directly observed therapy (DOT)
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a cancer that causes patches of abnormal tissue to grow under the skin, in the lining of the mouth, nose, and throat, in lymph nodes, or in other organs. These patches, or lesions, are usually red or purple. They are made of cancer cells, blood vessels, and blood cells. Kaposi Sarcoma is caused by infection with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8). Most people infected with HHV-8 don't get Kaposi Sarcoma. It usually happens with People with weak immune systems, due to HIV/AIDS, drugs taken after an organ transplant, or another disease. Treatment depends on where the lesions are and how bad they are. Options include radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, and biologic therapy. People with HIV/AIDS also take HIV/AIDS Medicines
- Track 15-1Co infection with Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)
- Track 15-2 Malignant lesions in the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes
- Track 15-3Classic Kaposi sarcoma
- Track 15-4Epidemic Kaposi sarcoma (HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma)
Early symptoms of HIV may feel like (and may even be mistaken for) a long-lasting flu. These flu-like symptoms may occur 4-8 weeks after infection and are known as HIV seroconversion or an acute HIV infection. During the initial period of infection, the body's immune system fights the HIV virus and as a result rids itself of flu-like symptoms. A person's ability to spread HIV is highest during this stage due to the high amount of the virus in the blood. As the HIV virus progresses over the course of months or years, the body's immune system continues to deteriorate and weaken, ultimately leading to AIDS. The immune system is compromised by this point and is unable to protect the body from HIV-related symptoms or new infections or illnesses. A therapeutic HIV vaccine is a vaccine that’s designed to improve the body’s immune response to HIV in a person who already has HIV. Currently, no therapeutic HIV vaccines have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but research is under way. Researchers are exploring therapeutic HIV vaccines to slow down the progression of HIV infection, to eliminate the need for antiretroviral therapy (ART) while still keeping undetectable levels of HIV, and as part of a larger strategy to eliminate all HIV from the body.
- Track 16-1Asymptomatic STIs
- Track 16-2 Primary flu-like illness
- Track 16-3 Swollen lymph nodes ,Chronic Diarrhoea, Cough.,
- Track 16-4 Antibiotics
- Track 16-5Vaccination
An antibody test (also called immunoassay) checks for antibodies to the HIV virus. Blood test is done by drawing blood from a vein, or by a finger prick. A blood test is the most accurate because blood has a higher level of antibodies than other body fluids. Oral fluid test checks for antibodies in the cells of the mouth. It is done by swabbing the gums and inside cheeks. This test is less accurate than the blood test. Urine test checks for antibodies in the urine. This test is also less accurate than the blood test. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests are used to detect HIV's genetic material, called RNA. These tests can be used to screen the donated blood supply and to detect very early infections before antibodies have been developed. Contact tracing of sexual partners is an important part of the clinical management of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and initiation of contact tracing is the responsibility of the diagnosing clinician.
- Track 17-1Blood tests Screening
- Track 17-2 Urine samples & Fluid samples Testing
- Track 17-3 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test
- Track 17-4Direct immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay
- Track 17-5Patient Contact tracing
HIV attacks and destroys the infection-fighting CD4 cells of the immune system. Loss of CD4 cells makes it hard for the body to fight off infections and certain HIV-related cancers. HIV medicines prevent HIV from multiplying (making copies of itself), which reduces the amount of HIV in the body. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the use of HIV medicines to treat HIV infection. People on ART take a combination of HIV medicines (called an HIV regimen) every day. ART is recommended for everyone who has HIV. ART can’t cure HIV, but HIV medicines help people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. ART also reduces the risk of HIV transmission. Potential risks of ART include side effects from HIV medicines and drug interactions between HIV medicines or between HIV medicines and other medicines a person is taking. Poor adherence in not taking HIV medicines every day and exactly as prescribed increases the risk of drug resistance and treatment failure. Side effects from HIV medicines can vary depending on the medicine and the person taking the medicine. People taking the same HIV medicine can have very different side effects. Some side effects, like headaches or occasional dizziness, may not be serious. Other side effects, such as swelling of the throat and tongue or liver damage, can be life-threatening.
- Track 18-1Protease inhibitors
- Track 18-2Integrase inhibitors
- Track 18-3Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
- Track 18-4Chemokine co-receptor antagonists
An HIV vaccine may have the purpose of protecting individuals who do not have HIV from being infected with the virus -a preventative vaccine or treating an HIV-infected person -a therapeutic vaccine. There are two approaches to an HIV vaccine,
- An active vaccine aims to induce an immune response against HIV
- A passive vaccine preforms antibodies against HIV are administered
The vaccine candidate was shown to protect monkeys from simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), an HIV-like virus that only affects monkeys. While we haven’t yet seen the development of a definitive HIV vaccine, this research is having a ripple effect in the field. HIV vaccine candidate induced robust and comparable immune responses in humans and monkeys. Moreover, the vaccine provided 67 percent protection against viral challenge in monkeys.
- Track 19-1Gardasil-9 HPV- Merck vaccine
- Track 19-2 Experimental attenuated and inactivated herpes vaccines
- Track 19-3 Candidate HIV vaccines
- Track 19-4 HIV-1 vaccine regimen- The Lancet
Most cases of female infertility are caused by problems with ovulation. Without ovulation, there are no eggs to be fertilized. Some signs that a woman is not ovulating normally include irregular or absent menstrual periods. Ovulation problems are often caused by polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is a hormone imbalance problem which can interfere with normal ovulation and is the most common cause of female infertility. Also, cohort studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in HIV-1-infected women. These women may therefore also be at risk for tubal infertility. Behavioural influences may also lead to higher fertility rates. Biological mechanisms also influence fertility rates in HIV-positive women and men. Research has shown that women with HIV may find it more difficult to conceive than their HIV-negative counterparts. HIV infected women experience reduced pregnancy rates and higher rates of both planned abortion and miscarriage.
- Track 20-1Biological and Socio-behavioural Factors
- Track 20-2 Biological mechanisms in Men & Women
- Track 20-3Asymptomatic stage of HIV infection
- Track 20-4Risk of cervical abnormalities
In countries where HIV/AIDS treatment is widely available, positive parenting is on the rise. The risk of mother-to-child transmission is as low as 2% in these areas, and treatment has prolonged life expectancy for many potential parents with HIV. Current treatment options for HIV-positive children are insufficient, as little investment has been made to ensure the safety and efficacy of antiretrovirals in treating children, or to develop child-appropriate formulations. An improved first-line therapy for children under 3 years of age would ideally be safe, easy to administer, well-tolerated and palatable, heat-stable, readily dispersible, and dosed once daily or less. It must also carry minimal risk for developing resistance, be compatible with drugs against tuberculosis, and affordable.
- Track 21-1Sexual abuse, by accidental contact, or perinatally
- Track 21-2Childhood syphailis, Condylomata acuminata, and Chlamydi trachomatis
- Track 21-3Vulvovaginitis
- Track 21-4Sexuality education- 3 Dissemination
- Track 21-5Cognitive, Affective and Behavioural
Sexually transmitted infections continue to be one of the major Public health concerns. Health awareness events create publicity for health issues and aims to improve the condition and help save lives, sometimes these events encourage preventative action against conditions becoming more serious. Sexual health is a broad area that encompasses many inter-related challenges and problems. Key issues and concerns are human rights related to sexual health, sexual pleasure, eroticism and sexual satisfaction, diseases (HIV/AIDS, STIs, RTIs), violence, female genital mutilation, sexual dysfunction and mental health related to sexual health. Having safe sex practices will be the most effective way to prevent HIV. Barriers work by blocking many viruses, bacteria, and other infectious particles. Male latex condoms are the most common barrier used for safe sex.
- Track 22-1Adolescent Friendly Clinic (AFC)
- Track 22-2Adolescent health care Orientation
- Track 22-3 Integration of Sexuality
- Track 22-4Interpersonal Communication
- Track 22-5Alternative Methods for Prevention